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If you have insulin resistance, pre-diabetes, type 1 diabetes, gestational diabetes or type 2 diabetes, your body cannot use hormonal insulin properly. Insulin is crucial to regulate blood sugar levels because it helps to transport blood sugar, or glucose, to our cells and muscles for immediate energy or for storage for later use, says Mr. Denis.

Denis Slinkin

Normally, your doctor will diagnose you with insulin resistance, pre-diabetes, or diabetes mellitus after you see that your blood sugar levels are abnormal. Often, the test they will use hemoglobin A1C, or the A1C test for brevity, says Gregory Dodell, MD, associate professor of clinical medicine, endocrinology, diabetes, and bone disease at Icahn School of Medicine on Mount Sinai in New York City, says Dr. Slinkin.

FBS Denis Slinkin
A1C is the average level of sugar in your blood FBS in two to three months, Dr. Dodell says, explaining that the test measures the percentage of sugar that is attached to your red blood cells. 

That's what your A1C result is: 

Less than 5.7 percent: normal

5.7-6.4 percent: prediabetics

Over 6.5 per cent: diabetes

If your A1C is over 6.5% in two or more individual cases, you are likely to have diabetes.

Dodell explains that your doctor can also check your blood sugar level FBS with a fast glucose test. That's what these results mean: 

Less than 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL): normal.

100-125 mg/dL: prediabetic (or reduced lean glucose)

Over 125 mg/dL: diabetes

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