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The medical use of Oxycodone hydrichloride has been used in clinical practice since 1916 to manage acute or chronic pain from mild to moderate severity. It has been found to improve quality of life in people with many types of pain. Experts are divided over its use in non-cancer chronic pain, as most opioids have a high potential for addiction and can also create paradoxical pain
sensitivity. Oxycodone is available as controlled release tablets to be taken every 12 hours. A 2006 review found that controlled release oxycodone was comparable to instant release oxycodone, morphine and hydromorphone, in controlling moderate to severe cancer pain, with fewer side effects thanmorphine.https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=b0a5ded2-8ee2-49ca-a86c-2b28ae40f60c
The author has concluded that the form of oxycodone with controlled release is an alternative to morphine and first-line drugs for the treatment of cancer pain. In 2014, the European Palliative Care Association recommended oral oxycodone as an alternative to second-line oral morphine for the treatment of cancer pain. In the USA, prolonged release oxycodone is approved for use in children under 11 years of age. Approved indications for use include relief of cancer pain, injuries or pain due to major surgery in children who have already received opioids that can tolerate a dose of at least 20 mg of oxycodone per day; this is an alternative to Duragesic (fentanyl), the only other opioid analgesic prolonged release approved for use in children. Use In the United States, oxycodone is approved for oral use only and is available as tablets and oral solutions. In the United Kingdom, oxycodone is also approved for intravenous (BB) and intramuscular (IU) use. During the First World War, when oxycodone was first used in Germany, BB and BM were widely used to treat postoperative pain in soldiers of the Union of Central Powers. Misuse of oxycodone appears to have a significant antidepressant effect.
The main side effects of oxycodone include euphoria, constipation, fatigue, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, dry mouth, anxiety, itching and sweating. Less common side effects (observed in less than 5% of patients) include loss of appetite, nervousness, abdominal pain, diarrhea, urinary retention, shortness of breath and hiccups. When taken in high doses, overdose, or in some individuals who are not tolerant of opioids, oxycodone may cause superficial respiration, bradycardia, cooling and hydration of the skin, shortness of breath, hypotension, myosis, heart failure, respiratory failure and death. In order to reduce side effects, a combination of oxycodone and naloxone in controlled release tablets has been developed. Dependence, drug addiction and withdrawal syndrome The risk of severe withdrawal symptoms increases if a patient becomes physically dependent on the drug and suddenly stops taking it. According to the rules of medicine, if the drug has been taken regularly for a long period of time, it should be stopped gradually rather than sharply. People who regularly use oxycodone recreationally or in doses exceeding the prescribed ones have an even higher risk of severe symptoms of withdrawal. Symptoms of oxycodone withdrawal, like other opiates, may include 'anxiety, panic attacks, nausea, insomnia, muscle pain, muscle weakness, fever and other flu-like symptoms'. Symptoms of withdrawal have also been reported in newborns whose mothers have injected or taken oral oxycodone during pregnancy. Hormonal imbalance As with other opiates, chronic use of oxycodone (particularly at higher doses) often causes both hypogonadism and hormonal imbalance.
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